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The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation to the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of Boyle’s law, Charles’s law and Avogadro’s Law
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Equation of ideal gas law
The state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern form of the equation relates these simply in two main forms. The temperature used in the equation of state is an absolute temperature: in the SI system of units, Kelvin.
Gas Equation: PV = nRT
- P = pressure,
- V = volume,
- n = moles of gas,
- T = temperature,
- R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1, ideal gas constant.
Ideal Gas Law Example:
Case 1: Find the volume from the 0.250 moles gas at 200kpa and 300K temperature.P = 200 kPa, n = 0.250 mol, T = 300K, R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1
Substitute the values in the below volume equation: Volume(V) = nRT / P = (0.250 x 8.314 x 300) / 200 = 623.55 / 200 Volume(V) = 3.12 L This example will guide you to calculate the volume manually.
Case 2: Find the temperature from the 250ml cylinder contaning 0.50 moles gas at 153kpa.V = 250ml -> 250 / 1000 = 0.250 L, n = 0.50 mol, P = 153 kPa, R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1
Substitute the values in the below temperature equation: Temperature(T) = PV / nR = (153 x 0.250) / (0.50 x 8.314) = 38.25 / 4.16 Temperature(T) = 9.2 K This example will guide you to calculate the temperature manually.